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Third-Party Gametes/Gestational Carriers and ART

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Sperm Donation Donor sperm is widely available through commercial sperm banks with cryopreserved sperm. The development of ICSI has dramatically reduced the demand for donor sperm. Oocyte Donation Pregnancy rates with in vitro fertilization declines substantially after the age of 37 due to poor oocyte quality. Oocyte donation allows women over the age of 40, […]

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Assisted Hatching

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Assisted hatching is a micromanipulation technique, which makes an opening in the zona pellucida of the embryo after fertilization to promote hatching of embryos, which may be unable to escape from the zona pellucida. Assisted hatching may improve pregnancy rates in women older than 38 years, those who have an elevated day 3 FSH, history […]

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Micromanipulation: Assisted Fertilization

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Micromanipulation has been used for animal research for decades. This technology was not applied to human oocytes until the mid-1980s. Micromanipulation is used in cases of severe male factor with IVF in an attempt to improve fertilization rates. The first micromanipulation procedure involved a zona-drilling technique described by Gordon and Talansky, where small holes were […]

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Tubal Embryo or Zygote Transfer (TET/ZIFT)

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Tubal embryo or zygote (single-cell embryo) transfers comprised less than 2 percent of ART procedures in 1996. TET or ZIFT combines IVF with intrafallopian transfer. The advantage of performing this procedure is the theoretical benefit of transferring an embryo/zygote into a tubal environment, which is rich in endogenous growth factors essential for embryo development and […]

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Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Gamete intrafallopian transfer, or GIFT, refers to the placement of oocytes and sperm into the mid-ampullary portion of the fallopian tube(s). Ovarian stimulation is identical to that of IVF supraovulation. Oocyte retrieval is done transvaginally with sonographic guidance. Selected oocytes and sperm are loaded into a GIFT catheter separated by an air bubble and injected […]

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IVF Historical Perspective

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

The first successful human birth from in vitro fertilization (IVF) occurred on July 25, 1978 in Great Britain. On December 28, 1981, the first baby conceived through IVF was born in the United States, in Norfolk, Virginia. Since that time, IVF and related technologies have achieved a prominent niche in the clinical management of infertility. […]

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In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

IVF refers to conception that occurs in a laboratory versus fertilization that occurs in the fallopian tube (in vivo). The first human IVF pregnancy followed retrieval of a single oocyte in a spontaneous menstrual cycle and transfer of the embryo during the luteal phase. However, the inefficiency of LH monitoring, aspiration of a single follicle […]

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Mitochondrial DNA Defects

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

It has been suggested that mitochondrial DNA defects that effect metabolic capacity may be a proximal cause of failures in oocyte maturation, fertilization, or early embryonic development. Here, the distribution of mitochondria was examined by scanning laser confocal microscopy in living human pronuclear oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, followed either by measurements of the net […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

Approximately 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies result in a spontaneous abortion (SAB). If all pregnancies are taken into consideration, including those that are too early to be clinically recognized, it is estimated that 30% fail. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as the occurrence of two consecutive spontaneous abortions or, more strictly, three […]

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