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Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

by renntenn July 13, 2011 No Comments

Introduction The menopausal state is characterized by a decrease in ovarian production of estrogens resulting in an increase in the risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease (1,2,3). The majority of women can now expect to live well beyond the menopausal years increasing the likelihood that these conditions will be the cause of significant […]

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Premature Ovarian Failure

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined by most authors as the loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. It is characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenemia, and elevated serum gonadotropin levels. This occurs in about 1.9% of women before age 40 and in 0.1% of women before age 30. Menopause normally occurs at an average […]

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Transition from OI/IVF to Donor Oocytes

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

Since the first successful in vitro fertilization cycle was reported in 1978, efforts have been directed toward increasing the chance of success with the procedure. This first pregnancy was accomplished in a normal, unstimulated menstrual cycle. As time passed, it was recognized that stimulation of the ovaries in order to achieve the development of several […]

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Differential Effects of Repeated Ovarian Stimulation

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

The effects of four rounds of ovarian stimulation spaced 1-6 weeks apart on the normality of methaphase II (MII) spindle formation, chromosomal allignment and cytoplasmic organization were examined in intact ovulated mouse oocytes and at MII for oocytes obtained at the germinal vesicle stage from the same ovaries and matured in vitro. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl […]

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Fragmentation Phenotypes in Stage-appropriate Human Embryos

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

The occurrence of a pleiomorphic population of cytoplasmic fragments is a common characteristic of early human embryos fertilized in vitro. Here, temporal, spatial, fine structural, and biochemical aspects of fragmentation were examined in fragmented monospermic and dispermic pronuclear to early cleavage stages human embryos classified as stage-appropriate during the first 3.5 days of culture. The […]

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Mitochondria in Human Oogenesis and Preimplantation Embryogenesis

by credocs July 13, 2011 No Comments

Abstract Mitochondria are the most abundant organelles in the mammalian oocyte and early embryo. While their role in ATP production has long been known, only recently has their contribution to oocyte and embryo competence been investigated in the human. This review considers whether such factors as mitochondrial complement size, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and defects, […]

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